Dating us military buttons
This type was first produced by the Scovill Company in the 1830's, for the army staff officers.
Horstmann Sons & Drucker date 1845 to 1849, this was a partnership by WH Horstmann and Drucker. HORSTMANN & CO / (graphic) PHILADELPHIA (graphic)", "PHILADELPHIA" is smaller font size than rest of the lettering, dm inner ring of dots, two solid rings around the shank, manufacture estimated 1850's, Horstmann sold the buttons, actual maker not determined, (Horstmann110). HORSTMANN & SONS / (dot) PHI (dot)" rmdc on a stippled channel, probably manufactured by Steele & Johnson ca 1850's, (Horstmann210). Note that the length of the inner rays may appear to vary. ca 1860, manufactured by Steele & Johnson for Horstmann, ca 1860, (Horstmann520).
References below are to the pictures published Plates B-16 to B-18.
Pictures were not published for the majority of the listings. SONS / (dot) PHI (dot) " rmdc shallow channel plain background, outer solid ring gives the appearance of a double ring, probably made by Steele & Johnson, 1850's, (Horstmann221).
It is the opinion of the author that this was done when the button was shanked, and is not actually a variant in the die. Backmark: "HORSTMANN & ALLIEN / (dot) N (dot) Y (dot)" dm between single outer ring and two inner solid rings, probably Steele & Johnson ca 1860's, (Horstmann340). , (three part officer button, hat or sleeve size, 15mm). Backmark: "HORSTMANN & CO / (dot) NEW YORK (dot) " dm between inner and outer rings of hyphens giving the impression of a twisted rope, dating not certain, (Horstmann710). I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me.
All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described.